How domain name system work for the internet

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domain name system

Today here we are going to learn about how domain name system work. We all know nowadays, every blogger is working on their blogs and start exploring search engine results. But firstly, here we will discuss how the Internet works.

Domain Name Systems

Internet and WWW use computer languages and codes to find and share data and information. Domain Name Systems, or DNS, play a crucial role on the Internet. (Although many people think “DNS” stands for “Domain Name Server,” it stands for “Domain Name System.”) DNS belongs to the TCP/IP protocol family, describing how computers exchange data on the Internet and private networks. As it helps computers identify one another on a network, it converts easy-to-understand domain names such as “https://itrendly.com/” into IP addresses. Names and numbers are matched in this system.

How does Domain Network System work?

DNS is like the Internet’s phone book. Without such a system, you’d have to resort to more complicated and esoteric means to find your way across the virtual open plains and dense cities of data strewn across the global Internet. That would be no fun since hundreds of millions of domain names exist.

An IP address is used to route your request to a website on the Internet. Dialing a phone number is similar to calling a person. The DNS eliminates the need to keep your IP address book. An IP address is mapped to a domain name through a domain name server called a DNS server

  • Domain Name Resolution.

If you access a website or send an e-mail, your computer looks up the domain name using a DNS server. DNS name resolution is converting a domain name into an IP address. An example of resolving a domain name into an IP address for HowStuffWorks’ web servers is done when you enter “https://itrendly.com/” into your browser.

But, you’re probably more likely to remember “https://itrendly.com/” when you want to return later. In addition, a website’s IP address can change over time, and some sites associate multiple IP addresses with a single domain name.

  • Is the DNS server harmful or not?

In the absence of DNS servers, the Internet would quickly come to a halt. What is the process by which your computer determines which DNS server to use? Your computer or mobile device receives vital network configuration information when you connect to your home network, internet service provider (ISP), or WiFi network. A DNS server is included in the configuration so that the device can translate DNS names into IP addresses.

These are some of the most critical DNS basics you’ve read. The remainder of this article examines name resolution and domain name servers in more detail. You will even learn how to manage your DNS server in the book.

To understand name resolution, let’s look at how IP addresses are structured.

The DNS server and the IP address

An IP address is translated into a domain name by a domain name server, which is what you just learned. It sounds like a simple task, and it would be if it weren’t for the following factors:

  • Billions of IP addresses are currently being used, and most machines also have a human-readable name.
  • There are billions of DNS requests processed daily across the Internet by DNS servers (cumulatively).
  • Millions of people add and change IP addresses and domain names daily.

Network efficiency and internet protocols are crucial to DNS servers because they have much to handle. One reason IP is effective is that every computer on a network has its IP address, regardless of whether it is in IPV4 or IPV6 standard, as managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

Here are some ways to recognize an IP address:

  • According to IPV4, an IP address consists of four numbers separated by three decimals, such as 70.74.251.42.
  • An IP address in the IPV6 standard has eight hexadecimal numbers (base-16) separated by colons, as in 2001:0cb8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334.
  • There are octets in IPV4 numbers because each octet is equivalent to an 8-digit binary (base-2) number. In this case, 42 stands for 00101010.
  • The numbers 0 through 255 are the only possible values for each object.
  • IANA reserves certain addresses and ranges for specific purposes in IP. A computer’s IP address, such as 127.0.0.1, can be used to identify it.

Where does your computer’s IP address come from?

A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server on your network probably configures your desktop or laptop computer. Every time you go online, your DHCP server ensures you have the IP address and other network configurations your computer needs. Since this is a “dynamic” address, it may change periodically when your computer is shut down. It’s probably not something you’ll notice as a user. Your computer or mobile device’s IP address can find in this page’s sidebar.

The static IP address in how the domain network system works?

The use of static IP addresses is every day among web servers and other computers that require a constant point of contact. While a system is online, the IP address assigned to its network interface will always be the same. Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for network interfaces are associated with IP addresses to ensure they always receive the same IP address. The manufacturer embeds a unique MAC address into every network interface, wired or wireless.

How DNS works

For computers to understand and use URLs and domain names, DNS servers convert them into IP addresses. Their job is to translate what users type into a browser into something the machine can understand. DNS resolution is the process of translating and looking up information.

Here are the steps involved in a DNS resolution:

  1. The user enters a web address or domain name into a browser.
  2. The browser sends a recursive DNS query message to the network to find out which IP or network address corresponds to a domain.
  3. Recursive DNS servers, also called recursive resolvers, are usually operated by Internet service providers (ISP).
  4. Recursive DNS servers query Domain Name System root name servers, top-level domain (TLD) name servers, and authoritative name servers if they do not know an answer.
  5. The three server types work together and continue redirecting until they retrieve a DNS record that contains the queried IP address.

Conclusion

Users are usually unaware of the entire querying process, which takes only a few seconds.

Both inside and outside their domains, Domain Name System servers answer questions. Servers provide authoritative answers to outside requests for information about names and addresses inside their environment.

Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Domain Name Systems (DNS) with their respective answers:
What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is a system that translates domain names into IP addresses that computers can understand. This allows users to access websites using easy-to-remember domain names instead of having to remember a series of numbers (IP addresses).

How does DNS work?

When a user types a domain name into their browser, the browser sends a request to a DNS resolver, which looks up the IP address associated with that domain name. The DNS resolver then returns the IP address to the browser, which can then connect to the website.

What is a DNS server?

A DNS server is a computer that is part of the DNS system. It is responsible for storing information about domain names and their associated IP addresses, and for responding to DNS queries from clients.

What is a DNS record?

A DNS record is a piece of information that is stored in a DNS server and contains information about a particular domain name. There are several types of DNS records, including A records (which map domain names to IP addresses), MX records (which specify the mail server for a domain), and CNAME records (which specify an alias for a domain).

What is DNS propagation?

DNS propagation refers to the time it takes for DNS changes to be updated across all DNS servers on the internet. When a DNS record is changed, it can take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours (or even days) for the change to be propagated to all DNS servers.

What is a DNS cache?

A DNS cache is a temporary storage area on a computer or network that contains recently accessed DNS information. This allows for faster DNS resolution and can help to reduce network traffic.

What is DNS hijacking?

DNS hijacking (also known as DNS redirection) is a type of cyber attack in which a hacker redirects traffic from a legitimate website to a fake website that they control. This can be used to steal sensitive information or to spread malware.

What is a DNS zone?

A DNS zone is a portion of the DNS namespace that is managed by a particular DNS server. It contains information about the domain names and IP addresses associated with that zone.

What is DNS over HTTPS (DoH)?

DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is a protocol that encrypts DNS requests and responses using the HTTPS protocol. This helps to protect user privacy and can prevent DNS spoofing and hijacking attacks.

What is a DNS resolver?

A DNS resolver is a computer program or service that is responsible for looking up domain names and returning their associated IP addresses. DNS resolvers are typically provided by ISPs or other network operators.

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